Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML)

Active Ingredient: Nilotinib

Indication for Nilotinib

Population group: only adults (18 years old or older)

Nilotinib is indicated for the treatment of:

  • adult and paediatric patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) in the chronic phase,
  • adult patients with chronic phase and accelerated phase Philadelphia chromosome positive CML with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy including imatinib. Efficacy data in patients with CML in blast crisis are not available,
  • paediatric patients with chronic phase Philadelphia chromosome positive CML with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy including imatinib.

For this indication, competent medicine agencies globally authorize below treatments:

600-800 mg in 2 divided doses daily

Route of admnistration

Oral

Defined daily dose

600 - 800 mg

Dosage regimen

From 300 To 400 mg 2 time(s) per day every day

Detailed description

Treatment should be continued as long as clinical benefit is observed or until unacceptable toxicity occurs.

If a dose is missed the patient should not take an additional dose, but take the usual prescribed next dose.

Posology for Philadelphia chromosome positive CML adult patients

The recommended dose is:

  • 300 mg twice daily in newly diagnosed patients with CML in the chronic phase,
  • 400 mg twice daily in patients with chronic or accelerated phase CML with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy.

For a dose of 300 mg twice daily, 150 mg hard capsules are available.

Adult Philadelphia chromosome positive CML patients in chronic phase who have been treated with nilotinib as first-line therapy and who achieved a sustained deep molecular response (MR4.5)

Discontinuation of treatment may be considered in eligible adult Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) CML patients in chronic phase who have been treated with nilotinib at 300 mg twice daily for a minimum of 3 years if a deep molecular response is sustained for a minimum of one year immediately prior to discontinuation of therapy. Discontinuation of nilotinib therapy should be initiated by a physician experienced in the treatment of patients with CML.

Eligible patients who discontinue nilotinib therapy must have their BCR-ABL transcript levels and complete blood count with differential monitored monthly for one year, then every 6 weeks for the second year, and every 12 weeks thereafter. Monitoring of BCR-ABL transcript levels must be performed with a quantitative diagnostic test validated to measure molecular response levels on the International Scale (IS) with a sensitivity of at least MR4.5 (BCR-ABL/ABL ≤0.0032% IS).

For patients who lose MR4 (MR4=BCR-ABL/ABL ≤0.01%IS) but not MMR (MMR=BCR-ABL/ABL ≤0.1%IS) during the treatment-free phase, BCR-ABL transcript levels should be monitored every 2 weeks until BCR-ABL levels return to a range between MR4 and MR4.5. Patients who maintain BCR-ABL levels between MMR and MR4 for a minimum of 4 consecutive measurements can return to the original monitoring schedule.

Patients who lose MMR must re-initiate treatment within 4 weeks of when loss of remission is known to have occurred. Nilotinib therapy should be re-initiated at 300 mg twice daily or at a reduced dose level of 400 mg once daily if the patient had a dose reduction prior to discontinuation of therapy. Patients who re-initiate nilotinib therapy should have their BCR-ABL transcript levels monitored monthly until MMR is re-established and every 12 weeks thereafter.

Adult Philadelphia chromosome positive CML patients in chronic phase who have achieved a sustained deep molecular response (MR 4.5) on nilotinib following prior imatinib therapy

Discontinuation of treatment may be considered in eligible adult Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) CML patients in chronic phase who have been treated with nilotinib for a minimum of 3 years if a deep molecular response is sustained for a minimum of one year immediately prior to discontinuation of therapy. Discontinuation of nilotinib therapy should be initiated by a physician experienced in the treatment of patients with CML.

Eligible patients who discontinue nilotinib therapy must have their BCR-ABL transcript levels and complete blood count with differential monitored monthly for one year, then every 6 weeks for the second year, and every 12 weeks thereafter. Monitoring of BCR-ABL transcript levels must be performed with a quantitative diagnostic test validated to measure molecular response levels on the International Scale (IS) with a sensitivity of at least MR4.5 (BCR-ABL/ABL ≤0.0032% IS).

Patients with confirmed loss of MR4 (MR4= BCR-ABL/ABL ≤0.01%IS) during the treatment-free phase (two consecutive measures separated by at least 4 weeks showing loss of MR4) or loss of major molecular response (MMR=BCR-ABL/ABL ≤0.1%IS) must re-initiate treatment within 4 weeks of when loss of remission is known to have occurred. Nilotinib therapy should be re-initiated at either 300 mg or 400 mg twice daily. Patients who re-initiate nilotinib therapy should have their BCR-ABL transcript levels monitored monthly until previous major molecular response or MR4 level is re-established and every 12 weeks thereafter.

Dosage considerations

Nilotinib should be taken twice daily approximately 12 hours apart and must not be taken with food. No food should be consumed for 2 hours before the dose is taken and no food should be consumed for at least one hour after the dose is taken.

The absorption and bioavailability of nilotinib are increased if it is taken with food, resulting in a higher serum concentration.

Active ingredient

Nilotinib

Nilotinib is a potent inhibitor of the ABL tyrosine kinase activity of the BCR-ABL oncoprotein. Nilotinib selectively inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis in cell lines and in primary Philadelphia-chromosome positive leukaemia cells from CML patients. In murine models of CML, as a single agent nilotinib reduces tumour burden and prolongs survival following oral administration.

Read more about Nilotinib

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