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Substance A to Z

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Chemical substance
Description

Budesonide is a glucocorticosteroid with a high local anti-inflammatory effect. At doses clinically equivalent to systemically acting glucocorticosteroids, budesonide gives significantly less HPA axis suppression and has a lower impact on inflammatory markers.

Colchicine is considered to act against the inflammatory response to urate crystals, by possibly inhibiting the migration of granulocytes into the inflamed area. Other properties of colchicine, such as interaction with the microtubules, could also contribute to the operation. Onset of action is approximately 12 hours after oral administration and is maximal after 1 to 2 days.

Ivermectin is a member of the avermectin class and has high affinity with glutamate-gated chloride channels present in invertebrate nerve and muscle cells. Its binding to these channels promotes an increase in membrane permeability to chloride ions, leading to hyperpolarization of the neural or muscle cell. This results in neuromuscular paralysis and may lead to the death of certain parasites.

Remdesivir inhibits viral RNA polymerases and has broad spectrum activity against members of the filoviruses (eg, EBOV, MARV), CoVs (eg, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV), and paramyxoviruses (eg, respiratory syncytial virus [RSV], Nipah virus [NiV], and Hendra virus).

Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid; it combines high anti-inflammatory effects with low mineralocorticoid activity. It has an approximately 7 times greater anti-inflammatory potency than prednisolone, another commonly prescribed corticosteroid. At high doses it reduces the immune response.

Ibuprofen is a propionic acid derivative NSAID that has demonstrated its efficacy by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. In humans ibuprofen reduces inflammatory pain, swellings and fever. Furthermore, ibuprofen reversibly inhibits platelet aggregation.

In its biologically active form vitamin D3 stimulates intestinal calcium absorption, incorporation of calcium into the osteoid, and release of calcium from bone tissue. In the small intestine it promotes rapid and delayed calcium uptake. The passive and active transport of phosphate is also stimulated.

Diazepam is a psychotropic substance from the class of 1,4-benzodiazepines with marked properties of suppression of tension, agitation and anxiety as well as sedative and hypnotic effects. In addition, diazepam demonstrates muscle relaxant and anticonvulsive properties. It is used in the short-term treatment of anxiety and tension states, as a sedative and premedicant, in the control of muscle spasm and in the management of alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

Amitriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant and an analgesic. It prevents the re-uptake, and hence the inactivation of noradrenaline and serotonin at nerve terminals. Reuptake prevention of these monoamine neurotransmitters potentiate their action in the brain. This appears to be associated with the antidepressant activity.

Paracetamol is a medication used to treat pain and fever. It does appear to selectively inhibit COX activities in the brain, which may contribute to its ability to treat fever and pain.