Active Ingredient Index A-Z

Rx Reasoner provides an in-depth analysis of pharmaceutical active ingredients. Browse through 20.000 prescription and over the counter medicines for both consumers and healthcare professionals. You can search in the form below for information and clinical resources related to medicines.

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Active ingredient
Description

Ibuprofen is a propionic acid derivative NSAID that has demonstrated its efficacy by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. In humans ibuprofen reduces inflammatory pain, swellings and fever. Furthermore, ibuprofen reversibly inhibits platelet aggregation.

Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid; it combines high anti-inflammatory effects with low mineralocorticoid activity. It has an approximately 7 times greater anti-inflammatory potency than prednisolone, another commonly prescribed corticosteroid. At high doses it reduces the immune response.

Codeine is a centrally acting weak analgesic. Codeine exerts its effect through μ opioid receptors, although codeine has low affinity for these receptors, and its analgesic effect is due to its conversion to morphine. Codeine, particularly in combination with other analgesics such as paracetamol, has been shown to be effective in acute nociceptive pain.

Paracetamol is a medication used to treat pain and fever. It does appear to selectively inhibit COX activities in the brain, which may contribute to its ability to treat fever and pain.

Doxycycline is primarily bacteriostatic and is believed to exert its antimicrobial effect by the inhibition of protein synthesis.

Tretinoin decreases cohesiveness of follicular epithelial cells resulting in decreased microcomedone formation. Additionally, tretinoin stimulates mitotic activity and increased turnover of follicular epithelial cells, causing extrusion of the comedones.

Cefuroxime inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis following attachment to penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). This results in the interruption of cell wall (peptidoglycan) biosynthesis, which leads to bacterial cell lysis and death.

Omeprazole, a racemic mixture of two enantiomers reduces gastric acid secretion through a highly targeted mechanism of action. It is a specific inhibitor of the acid pump in the parietal cell. It is rapidly acting and provides control through reversible inhibition of gastric acid secretion with once daily dosing.

Semaglutide is a GLP-1 receptor agonist. It acts in the same way as GLP-1 (a hormone produced in the gut) by increasing the amount of insulin that the pancreas releases in response to food. This helps with the control of blood glucose levels.

In its biologically active form vitamin D3 stimulates intestinal calcium absorption, incorporation of calcium into the osteoid, and release of calcium from bone tissue. In the small intestine it promotes rapid and delayed calcium uptake. The passive and active transport of phosphate is also stimulated.