For this indication, competent medicine agencies globally authorize below treatments:
For: Adults (18-64) Elders (65+)
Intramuscular, between 1.25 and 2.5 international units, once every 3 months.
Recommended needle: Sterile, 27-30 gauge/0.40-0.30 mm needle.
Administrative guidance: Electromyographic guidance is not necessary.
Recommended dose: The initial recommended dose is 1.25-2.5 Units (0.05-0.1 ml volume at each site) injected into the medial and lateral orbicularis oculi of the upper lid and the lateral orbicularis oculi of the lower lid. Additional sites in the brow area, the lateral orbicularis and in the upper facial area may also be injected if spasms here interfere with vision.
The following diagrams indicate the possible injection sites:
Maximum dose: The initial dose should not exceed 25 Units per eye. In the management of blepharospasm total dosing should not exceed 100 Units in total every 12 weeks.
Additional information: Avoiding injection near levator palpebrae superioris may reduce the complication of ptosis. Avoiding medial lower lid injections, and thereby reducing diffusion into the inferior oblique, may reduce the complication of diplopia.
In general, the initial effect of the injections is seen within three days and reaches a peak at one to two weeks post-treatment. Each treatment lasts approximately three months, following which the procedure can be repeated indefinitely. Normally no additional benefit is conferred by treating more frequently than every three months.
At repeat treatment sessions, the dose may be increased up to two-fold if the response from the initial treatment is considered insufficient – usually defined as an effect that does not last longer than two months. However, there appears to be little benefit obtainable from injecting more than 5 Units per site.
Patients with hemifacial spasm or VIIth nerve disorders should be treated as for unilateral blepharospasm, with other affected facial muscles being injected as needed. Electromyographic control may be necessary to identify affected small circumoral muscles.
Total dosing should not exceed 100 Units in total every 12 weeks.