Rocuronium bromide is as an adjunct to general anaesthesia to facilitate tracheal intubation during routine sequence induction and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery.
For this indication, competent medicine agencies globally authorize below treatments:
For: Newborns Infants Children Adolescents Adults (18-64) Elders (65+)
Regimen A: Intravenous, between 0.6 and 1 milligrams per kilogram of body weight, one dose. Afterwards, intravenous, 0.15 milligrams per kilogram of body weight, one dose.
Regimen B: Intravenous, between 0.6 and 1 milligrams per kilogram of body weight, one dose. Afterwards, intravenous, between 0.075 and 0.1 milligrams per kilogram of body weight, one dose.
The standard intubating dose during routine anaesthesia is 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium bromide, after which adequate intubation conditions are established within 60 seconds in nearly all patients. A dose of 1.0 mg/kg rocuronium bromide is recommended for facilitating tracheal intubation conditions during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia, after which adequate intubation conditions are established within 60 seconds in nearly all patients. If a dose of 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium bromide is used for rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia, it is recommended to intubate the patient 90 seconds after administration of rocuronium bromide.
Should there be reason for selection of larger doses in individual patients, there is no indication from clinical studies that the use of initial doses up to 2 mg/kg rocuronium bromide is associated with an increased frequency or severity of cardiovascular effects. The use of these high dosages of rocuronium bromide decreases the onset time and increases the duration of action.
The recommended maintenance dose is 0.15 mg/kg rocuronium bromide; in the case of long-term inhalational anaesthesia this should be reduced to 0.075-0.1 mg/kg rocuronium bromide. The maintenance doses should best be given when twitch height has recovered to 25% of control twitch height, or when 2 to 3 responses to train of four stimulation are present.
If rocuronium bromide is administered by continuous infusion, it is recommended to give a loading dose of 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium bromide and, when neuromuscular block starts to recover, to start administration by infusion. The infusion rate should be adjusted to maintain twitch response at 10% of control twitch height or to maintain 1 to 2 responses to train of four stimulation. In adults under intravenous anaesthesia, the infusion rate required to maintain neuromuscular block at this level ranges from 0.3-0.6 mg/kg/h (300-600 micrograms/kg/h) and under inhalational anaesthesia the infusion rate ranges from 0.3-0.4 mg/kg/h. Continuous monitoring of neuromuscular block is essential since infusion rate requirements vary from patient to patient and with the anaesthetic method used.
For neonates (0-27 days), infants (28 days-2 months), toddlers (3-23 months), children (2-11 years) and adolescents (12-17 years) the recommended intubation dose during routine anaesthesia and maintenance dose are similar to those in adults.
However, the duration of action of the single intubating dose will be longer in neonates and infants than in children.
For continuous infusion in paediatrics, the infusion rates, with the exception of children (2-11 years), are the same as for adults. For children aged 2-11 years higher infusion rates might be necessary.
Thus, for children (2-11 years) the same initial infusion rates as for adults are recommended and then this should be adjusted to maintain twitch response at 10% of control twitch height or to maintain 1 or 2 responses to train of four stimulation during the procedure.
The experience with rocuronium bromide in rapid sequence induction in paediatric patients is limited. Rocuronium bromide is therefore not recommended for facilitating tracheal intubation conditions during rapid sequence induction in paediatric patients.
The standard intubation dose for geriatric patients and patients with hepatic and/or biliary tract disease and/or renal failure during routine anaesthesia is 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium bromide. A dose of 0.6 mg/kg should be considered for rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia in patients in which a prolonged duration of action is expected. Regardless of the anaesthetic technique used, the recommended maintenance dose for these patients is 0.075-0.1 mg/kg rocuronium bromide, and the recommended infusion rate is 0.3-0.4 mg/kg/h (see Continuous infusion).
When used in overweight or obese patients (defined as patients with a body weight of 30% or more above ideal body weight) doses should be reduced taking into account ideal body weight.
Rocuronium bromide is administered intravenously either as a bolus injection or as a continuous infusion.
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