Active ingredients: Clindamycin
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Lincosamides
ATC Code: J01FF01
Clindamycin is a lincosamide antibiotic with a primarily bacteriostatic action against Gram-positive aerobes and a wide range of anaerobic bacteria. Lincosamides such as clindamycin bind to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome similarly to macrolides such as erythromycin and inhibit the early stages of protein synthesis. The action of clindamycin is predominantly bacteriostatic although high concentrations may be slowly bactericidal against sensitive strains.
Resistance to clindamycin usually occurs via macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) type of resistance, which may be constitutive or inducible. Clindamycin demonstrates cross-resistance with lincomycin. When tested by in vitro methods, some staphylococcal strains originally resistant to erythromycin rapidly developed resistance to clindamycin. The mechanisms for resistance are the same as for erythromycin, namely methylation of the ribosome binding site, chromosomal mutation of the ribosomal protein and in a few staphylococcal isolates emzymatic inactivation by a plasmid-mediated adenyltransferase.
The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) breakpoints are as follows:
Staphylococci: sensitive ≤0.5 resistant >0.5
Streptococci ABCG and pneumoniae: sensitive ≤0.5 resistant >0.5
Gram positive anaerobes: sensitive ≤4 resistant >4
Gram negative anaerobes: sensitive ≤4 resistant >4
The prevalence of acquired resistance may vary geographically and with time for selected species and local information on resistance is desirable, particularly when treating severe infections. As necessary, expert advice should be sought when local prevalence of resistance is such that the utility of the agent in at least some types of infections is questionable.
Bacteriodes fragilis group
* Up to 50% of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus have been reported to be resistant to clindamycin in some areas. More than 90% of methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA) are resistant to clindamycin and it should not be used while awaiting susceptibility test results if there is any suspicion of MRSA.
Following parenteral administration, the biologically inactive clindamycin phosphate is hydrolysed to clindamycin. When the equivalent of 300mg of clindamycin is injected intramuscularly, a mean peak plasma concentration of 6 microgram/ml is achieved within three hours; 600mg gives a peak concentration of 9 microgram/ml. In children, peak concentration may be reached within one hour. When the same doses are infused intravenously, peak concentrations of 7 and 10 micrograms per ml respectively are achieved by the end of infusion.
Clindamycin is widely distributed in body fluids and tissues, including bone, but it does not reach the cerebrospinal fluid in significant concentrations. It diffuses across the placenta into the foetal circulation and appears in breast milk. High concentrations occur in bile. It accumulates in leucocytes and macrophages. Over 90% of clindamycin in the circulation is bound to plasma proteins. The half-life is 2 to 3 hours, although this may be prolonged in pre-term neonates and patients with severe renal impairment.
Clindamycin undergoes metabolism, to the active N-demethyl and sulphoxide metabolites and also some inactive metabolites. About 10% of the drug is excreted in the urine as active drug or metabolites and about 4% in the faeces; the remainder is excreted as inactive metabolites. Excretion is slow and takes place over several days. It is not effectively removed from the blood by dialysis.
No special characteristics. See section 4.4 “Special warnings and special precautions for use” for further information.
Preclinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on studies of repeat dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity or genotoxicity. Carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted. In dogs, repeated high oral doses produced ulceration of the mucosa of the stomach and gall bladder.