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Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body, and is an essential body electrolyte. Homeostasis is mainly regulated by the parathyroid hormone, by calcitonin, and by the activated form of vitamin D. Calcium is a structural component of bones and teeth. It is also required for blood clotting, neurotransmitter release, muscle contraction and normal heartbeat.
Sodium chloride is the principle salt involved in maintaining the osmotic tension of blood and tissues. Changes in osmotic tension influence the movement of fluids and diffusion of salts in cellular tissue.
Potassium plays a vital physiological role in maintenance of normal electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. It is also important in the genesis and correction of imbalances of acid-base metabolism.
Glucose is frequently used in both adults and children to restore blood glucose concentrations in the treatment of hypoglycaemia resulting from insulin excess or from other causes. The metabolism of glucose is an energy source for the body.