Avelumab interacts in the following cases:
Thyroid disorders can occur at any time during treatment.
Patients should be monitored for changes in thyroid function (at the start of treatment, periodically during treatment, and as indicated based on clinical evaluation) and for clinical signs and symptoms of thyroid disorders. Hypothyroidism should be managed with replacement therapy and hyperthyroidism with anti-thyroid medicinal product, as needed. Avelumab should be withheld for Grade 3 or Grade 4 thyroid disorders.
Patients should be monitored for signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency during and after treatment. Corticosteroids should be administered (1 to 2 mg/kg/day prednisone intravenously or oral equivalent) for Grade ≥3 adrenal insufficiency followed by a taper until a dose of less than or equal to 10 mg/day has been reached.
Avelumab should be withheld for Grade 3 or Grade 4 symptomatic adrenal insufficiency.
Avelumab can cause Type 1 diabetes mellitus, including diabetic ketoacidosis.
Patients should be monitored for hyperglycaemia or other signs and symptoms of diabetes. Initiate treatment with insulin for Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Avelumab should be withheld and antihyperglycaemics in patients with Grade ≥3 hyperglycaemia should be administered. Treatment with avelumab should be resumed when metabolic control is achieved on insulin replacement therapy.
There are no or limited data from the use of avelumab in pregnant women.
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with avelumab. However, in murine models of pregnancy, blockade of PD-L1 signalling has been shown to disrupt tolerance to the foetus and to result in an increased foetal loss. These results indicate a potential risk, based on its mechanism of action, that administration of avelumab during pregnancy could cause foetal harm, including increased rates of abortion or stillbirth.
Human IgG1 immunoglobulins are known to cross the placental barrier. Therefore, avelumab has the potential to be transmitted from the mother to the developing foetus. It is not recommended to use avelumab during pregnancy unless the clinical condition of the woman requires treatment with avelumab.
It is unknown whether avelumab is excreted in human milk. Since it is known that antibodies can be secreted in human milk, a risk to the newborns/infants cannot be excluded.
Breast-feeding women should be advised not to breast-feed during treatment and for at least 1 month after the last dose due to the potential for serious adverse reactions in breast-fed infants.
Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant while receiving avelumab and should use effective contraception during treatment with avelumab and for at least 1 month after the last dose of avelumab.
The effect of avelumab on male and female fertility is unknown. Although studies to evaluate the effect of avelumab on fertility have not been conducted, there were no notable effects in the female reproductive organs in monkeys based on 1-month and 3-month repeat-dose toxicity studies.
Avelumab has negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Fatigue has been reported following administration of avelumab. Patients should be advised to use caution when driving or operating machinery until they are certain that avelumab does not adversely affect them.