Pharmacodynamic properties

The constipating effect is caused by inhibition of the intestines' peristalsis.

Opium alkaloids (opioids and isoquinoline derivatives) induce constipation, euphoria, analgesia and sedation dependent on the dose and derivative.

Pharmacokinetic properties

Is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is eliminated primarily as metabolites excreted in the urine.

The duration of action is 3 to 4 hours.

Preclinical safety data

Studies have indicated an association between regular use of opium and increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and cancers in the oesophagus, larynx, bladder and lung.

The mechanism of this association is not fully understood.

Adverse reactions not observed in clinical studies, but seen in animals at exposures in excess of usual human exposure were as follows; Foetal growth retardation and increased rate of defects in the nervous system and the skeleton.

The relevance to clinical use is not known.

Related medicines

© All content on this website, including data entry, data processing, decision support tools, "RxReasoner" logo and graphics, is the intellectual property of RxReasoner and is protected by copyright laws. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of any part of this content without explicit written permission from RxReasoner is strictly prohibited. Any third-party content used on this site is acknowledged and utilized under fair use principles.