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ATC Group: A03F Propulsives

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System



Hierarchical Position



Active Ingredients

Chemical substance

Cinitapride is an agonist of 5-HT4 and 5-HT1 receptors and antagonist of 5-HT2 receptors. Cinitapride is marketed worldwide for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders related to motility such as indigestion or functional or non-ulcer dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux diseases, delay in gastric emptying and vomiting.

Cisapride is a substituted piperidinyl benzamide prokinetic agent. Cisapride facilitates release of acetylcholine from the myenteric plexus, resulting in increased gastrointestinal motility. In addition, cisapride has been found to act as a serotonin agonist, stimulating type 4 receptors, and a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist.

Clebopride is a dopamine antagonist drug. It is used to treat functional gastrointestinal disorder such as nausea or vomiting. Unchanged parent drug was the most abundant compound in human urine. Major metabolites included the hydroxylation at benzyl group to yield carbinolamine and its further N-dealkylation product, and the piperidine ring hydroxylation/oxidation metabolite (a lactam).

Domperidone is a dopamine antagonist with anti-emetic properties, Domperidone does not readily cross the blood-brain barrier. In domperidone users, especially in adults, extrapyramidal side effects are very rare, but domperidone promotes the release of prolactin from the pituitary.

Itopride activates the gastrointestinal propulsive motility by dopamine D2 receptors antagonistic action and acetylcholine esterase inhibitory action. Itopride activates acetylcholine release and inhibits its degradation.

The action of metoclopramide is closely associated with parasympathetic nervous control of the upper gastro-intestinal tract where it has the effect of encouraging normal peristaltic action. This provides for a fundamental approach to the control of those conditions where disturbed gastrointestinal motility is a common underlying factor.