Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Glycerol has uses as a hyperosmotic, osmotic diuretic, and ophthalmic agent. It may be used as an eye drop in the treatment of glaucoma to reduce intraocular pressure, as a solution or suppository for short-term treatment of constipation, to evacuate the bowel prior to a colonoscopy, and in some ocular surgeries. It may be given intravenously to reduce pressure inside the brain and used externally on the skin as a moisturizer.
Linaclotide is a Guanylate Cyclase-C receptor agonist (GCCA) with visceral analgesic and secretory activities. Through its action at GC-C, linaclotide has been shown to reduce visceral pain and increase GI transit in animal models and increase colonic transit in humans.
Lubiprostone is a locally acting chloride channel activator that enhances a chloride-rich intestinal fluid secretion without altering sodium and potassium concentrations in the serum. By increasing intestinal fluid secretion, lubiprostone increases motility in the intestine, thereby facilitating the passage of stool and alleviating symptoms associated with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC).
Plecanatide is a structural analog of human uroguanylin, and similarly to uroguanylin, plecanatide functions as a guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) agonist. Both plecanatide and its active metabolite bind to GC-C and act locally on the luminal surface of the intestinal epithelium. Activation of GC-C results in an increase in both intracellular and extracellular concentrations of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP).
Prucalopride is a dihydrobenzofurancarboxamide with gastrointestinal prokinetic activities. Prucalopride is a selective, high affinity serotonin (5-HT4) receptor agonist, which is likely to explain its prokinetic effects.
Tegaserod is an agonist of serotonin type-4 (5-HT4) receptors that stimulates the peristaltic reflex and intestinal secretion, inhibits visceral sensitivity, enhances basal motor activity, and normalizes impaired motility throughout the gastrointestinal tract.