Active ingredient: Levobupivacaine
During epidural administration of levobupivacaine, concentrated solutions (0.5-0.75%) should be administered in incremental doses of 3 to 5 ml with sufficient time between doses to detect toxic manifestations of unintentional intravascular or intrathecal injection. Cases of severe bradycardia, hypotension and respiratory compromise with cardiac arrest (some of them fatal); have been reported in conjunction with local anaesthetics, including levobupivacaine. When a large dose is to be injected, e.g. in epidural block, a test dose of 3-5 ml lidocaine with adrenaline is recommended. An inadvertent intravascular injection may then be recognised by a temporary increase in heart rate and accidental intrathecal injection by signs of a spinal block.
Syringe aspirations should also be performed before and during each supplemental injection in continuous (intermittent) catheter techniques. An intravascular injection is still possible even if aspirations for blood are negative. During the administration of epidural anaesthesia, it is recommended that a test dose be administered initially and the effects monitored before the full dose is given.
Epidural anaesthesia with any local anaesthetic may cause hypotension and bradycardia. All patients must have intravenous access established. The availability of appropriate fluids, vasopressors, anaesthetics with anticonvulsant properties, myorelaxants, and atropine, resuscitation equipment and expertise must be ensured.
For this indication, competent medicine agencies globally authorize below treatments:
50 - 150 mg
From 50 To 150 mg once every day
The table below is a guide to dosage for the more commonly used blocks. For analgesia (e.g. epidural administration for pain management), the lower concentrations and doses are recommended. Where profound or prolonged anaesthesia is required with dense motor block (e.g. epidural or peribulbar block), the higher concentrations may be used. Careful aspiration before and during injection is recommended to prevent intravascular injection.
There is limited safety experience with levobupivacaine therapy for periods exceeding 24 hours. In order to minimise the risk for severe neurological complications, the patient and the duration of administration of levobupivacaine should be closely monitored (see section 4.4).
Aspiration should be repeated before and during administration of a bolus dose, which should be injected slowly and in incremental doses, at a rate of 7.5–30 mg/min, while closely observing the patient’s vital functions and maintaining verbal contact.
If toxic symptoms occur, the injection should be stopped immediately.
The maximum dosage must be determined by evaluating the size and physical status of the patient, together with the concentration of the agent and the area and route of administration. Individual variation in onset and duration of block does occur. Experience from clinical studies shows onset of sensory block adequate for surgery in 10-15 minutes following epidural administration, with a time to regression in the range of 6-9 hours.
The recommended maximum single dose is 150 mg. Where sustained motor and sensory block are required for a prolonged procedure, additional doses may be required. The maximum recommended dose during a 24 hour period is 400 mg. For post-operative pain management, the dose should not exceed 18.75 mg/hour.
Table of doses:
|Concentration (mg/ml)1||Dose||Motor Block|
|Epidural (slow) bolus2 for surgery – Adults||5.0-7.5||10-20 ml (50-150 mg)||Moderate to complete|
Spread over 5 minutes.
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