The World Health Organization's ATC classification organizes medical drugs based on therapeutic properties, chemical composition, and anatomy. It helps make essential medicines readily available globally and is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry.
Amoxicillin is a semisynthetic penicillin (beta-lactam antibiotic) that inhibits one or more enzymes (often referred to as penicillin-binding proteins, PBPs) in the biosynthetic pathway of bactericidal peptidoglycan, which is an integral structural component of the bacterial cell wall. Inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis leads to weakening of the cell wall, which is usually followed by cell lysis and death.
Ampicillin is a broad spectrum penicillin, indicated for the treatment of a wide range of bacterial infections caused by ampicillin sensitive organisms.
Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining the sodium salt of penicillin G with N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine. Benzathine benzylpenicillin binds to penicillin binding proteins (PBP), the enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of peptidoglycan, a critical component of the bacterial cell wall. This leads to the interruption of cell wall synthesis, consequently leading to bacterial cell growth inhibition and cell lysis.
Benzylpenicillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic. It is bacteriocidal by inhibiting bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. Penicillin resistance can be mediated by alteration of penicillin binding proteins or development of beta-lactamases.
Carbenicillin is a semisynthetic penicillin. Carbenicillin exerts its antibacterial activity by interference with final cell wall synthesis of susceptible bacteria. Most Klebsiella species are usually resistant to the action of carbenicillin.
Clavulanic acid is a beta-lactam structurally related to penicillins. It inactivates some beta-lactamase enzymes thereby preventing inactivation of amoxicillin.
Cloxacillin is a semi-synthetic beta-lactamase resistant penicillin with activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria including beta-lactamase producing staphylococci. Cloxacillin acts by interfering with the formation of new bacterial cell wall by dividing organisms.
Dicloxacillin is a penicillinase stable, acid-stable semisynthetic penicillin. It inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis and has bactericidal effect on penicillin susceptible bacteria in the growth phase.
Flucloxacillin is an isoxazolyl penicillin of the β-lactam group of antibiotics which exerts a bactericidal effect upon many Gram-positive organisms including β-lactamase-producing staphylococci and streptococci.
Phenoxymethylpenicillin is a broad spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. Phenoxymethylpenicillin binds to penicillin-binding proteins located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Phenoxymethylpenicillin binds to and inactivates these proteins resulting in weakening of the bacterial cell wall and lysis.
Piperacillin is a broad-spectrum, semisynthetic penicillin. Piperacillin exerts bactericidal activity by inhibition of both septum and cell-wall synthesis.
Pivmecillinam is an orally active antibiotic. It is the pivaloyloxymethylester of the amidinopenicillanic acid, mecillinam. Mecillinam is a betalactam with a narrow-spectrum of activity. It is mainly active against Gram-negative bacteria and works by interfering with the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall.
Sultamicillin is the tosylate salt of the double ester of sulbactam plus ampicillin. Sulbactam is a semisynthetic beta-lactamase inhibitor which, in combination with ampicillin, extends the antibacterial activity of the latter to include some beta-lactamase-producing strains of bacteria that would otherwise be resistant.
Tazobactam is a beta-lactam structurally related to penicillins. It is an inhibitor of many molecular Class A beta-lactamases, including CTX-M, SHV, and TEM enzymes.
Ticarcillin disrupts bacterial cell wall development by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis and/or by interacting with penicillin-binding proteins.