ATC Group: P02C Antinematodal agents
Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Αlbendazole causes degenerative alterations in the tegument and intestinal cells of the worm by binding to the colchicine-sensitive site of tubulin, thus inhibiting its polymerization or assembly into microtubules.
Diethylcarbamazine citrate is a synthetic piperazine derivative with an antihelmintic action. MDA of diethylcarbamazine citrate has potential to interrupt the parasitic life cycle by destruction of microfilariae which are essential for host to vector transmission of the parasite.
Ivermectin is a member of the avermectin class and has high affinity with glutamate-gated chloride channels present in invertebrate nerve and muscle cells. Its binding to these channels promotes an increase in membrane permeability to chloride ions, leading to hyperpolarization of the neural or muscle cell. This results in neuromuscular paralysis and may lead to the death of certain parasites.
In vitro and in vivo work suggests that mebendazole blocks the uptake of glucose by adult and larval forms of helminths, in a selective and irreversible manner. Inhibition of glucose uptake appears to lead to endogenous depletion of glycogen stores within the helminth. Lack of glycogen leads to decreased formation of ATP and ultrastructural changes in the cells.
Pyrantel acts as a cholinergic agonist. Its mode of action is to stimulate nicotinic cholinergic receptors of the parasite, induce spastic paralysis of the nematodes and thereby allow removal from the gastro intestinal (GI) system by peristalsis.