ATC Group: A03A DRUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL BOWEL DISORDERS
Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Alosetron is a potent and selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist. 5-HT3 receptors are ligand-gated cation channels that are extensively distributed on enteric neurons in the human gastrointestinal tract, as well as other peripheral and central locations.
Dicyclomine relieves smooth muscle spasm of the gastrointestinal tract and is used for the treatment of patients with functional bowel/irritable bowel syndrome. It can inhibit the secretion of saliva and sweat, decrease gastrointestinal secretions and motility, cause drowsiness, dilate the pupils, increase heart rate, and depress motor function.
Dimeticone is used in many pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. A 4% concentration has been found to affect the physico-physiological activity of lice.
Glycopyrronium is an inhaled long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist (anticholinergic) for once-daily maintenance bronchodilator treatment of COPD. Glycopyrronium works by blocking the bronchoconstrictor action of acetylcholine on airway smooth muscle cells, thereby dilating the airways.
Mebeverine is a musculotropic antispasmodic with a direct action on the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract, relieving spasm without affecting normal gut motility.
Otilonium bromide is endowed with a marked spasmolytic action on the smooth muscle of the digestive tract.
Propantheline inhibits parasympathetic activity by blocking the action of the neurohormone, acetylcholine, on the neuroeffector cell. This blocking action of propantheline is instrumental in reducing gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal motor activity.
Simethicone is a chemically inert, non-systemic gastric defoaming agent that works by altering the elasticity of interfaces of mucus-embedded bubbles in the gastrointestinal tract. The gas bubbles are thus broken down or coalesced and in this form gas is more easily eliminated through eructation or passing flatus.
Trimebutine maleate is a noncompetitive spasmolytic agent. It possesses moderate opiate receptor affinity and has a marked antiserotonin activity especially on ‘M’ receptors. It induces regulation of spontaneous activity and increases synchronization between electrophysiological spikes and contractions in isolated guinea pig taenia coli and ileum. However, it does not alter normal motility, but regulates abnormal intestinal activity.