Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Amlodipine is a calcium ion influx inhibitor of the dihydropyridine group (slow channel blocker or calcium ion antagonist) and inhibits the transmembrane influx of calcium ions into cardiac and vascular smooth muscle.
Barnidipine is a lipophilic 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonist showing high affinity for the calcium channels of the smooth muscle cells in the vascular wall.
Clevidipine is a dihydropyridine L-type calcium channel blocker. L-type calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium during depolarization in arterialsmooth muscle. Experiments in anesthetized rats and dogs show that clevidipine reduces mean arterial blood pressure by decreasing systemic vascular resistance.
Felodipine is a vascular selective calcium antagonist, which lowers arterial blood pressure by decreasing systemic vascular resistance. Felodipine is effective in all grades of hypertension.
Isradipine is a potent dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker with selective activity on voltage-gated calcium channels (L-type or “long acting”). Isradipine has a higher affinity for such calcium channels in arterial smooth muscle than for those in the myocardium. It thus dilates arterial vascular beds, in particular those of the heart, brain and skeletal muscle without depressing cardiac function.
Lacidipine is a specific and potent calcium antagonist with a predominant selectivity for calcium channels in the vascular smooth muscle. Its main action is to dilate peripheral arterioles, reducing peripheral vascular resistance and lowering blood pressure.
Lercanidipine is a calcium antagonist of the dihydropyridine group and inhibits the transmembrane influx of calcium into cardiac and smooth muscle. The mechanism of its antihypertensive action is due to a direct relaxant effect on vascular smooth muscle thus lowering total peripheral resistance.
Levamlodipine is the pharmacologically active isomer of amlodipine, a long-acting calcium channel blocker. It is used for the treatment of hypertension in adults and pediatric patients, to lower blood pressure.
Manidipine (INN) is a calcium channel blocker (dihydropyridine type) that is used clinically as an antihypertensive. It is selective for vasculature and does not produce effects on the heart at clinically relevant dosages.
Nicardipine is a second generation slow calcium channel inhibitor, and belongs to the phenyl-dihydropyridine group. Nicardipine has a greater selectivity for L-type calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle than cardiac myocytes. Nicardipine produces smooth muscle relaxation and marked peripheral vasodilatation.
Nifedipine is a calcium antagonist of the 1,4-dihydropyridine type. Calcium antagonists reduce the transmembranal influx of calcium ions through the slow calcium channel into the cell. As a specific and potent calcium antagonist, nifedipine acts particularly on the cells of the myocardium and the smooth muscle cells of the coronary arteries and the peripheral resistance vessels. The main action of nifedipine is to relax arterial smooth muscle, both in the coronary and peripheral circulation. Nifedipine Tablets are formulated to achieve controlled delivery of nifedipine in a release profile sufficient to enable once-daily administration to be effective in clinical use.
Nilvadipine at very low concentrations inhibits the influx of calcium into the cell of the smooth vascular musculature and thereby cause vasodilatation. The myogenic vascular-wall tonus is reduced and the peripheral vascular resistance diminished. This in turn results in an antihypertensive effect.
Nimodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker with particular cerebrovascular effect. Nimodipine increases cerebral perfusion, particularly in poorly perfused areas, by arterial dilatation, an effect which is proportionately greater in smaller than in larger vessels.
Nisoldipine is a member of the dihydropyridine class of calcium channel antagonists (calcium ion antagonists or slow channel blockers) that inhibit the transmembrane influx of calcium into vascular smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Because the contractile process of vascular smooth muscle is dependent upon the movement of extracellular calcium into the muscle through specific ion channels, inhibition of the calcium channel results in dilation of the arterioles.
Nitrendipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is used in the treatment of primary hypertension to decrease blood pressure.