The World Health Organization's ATC classification organizes medical drugs based on therapeutic properties, chemical composition, and anatomy. It helps make essential medicines readily available globally and is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry.
Atorvastatin is a selective, competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase. Atorvastatin lowers plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein serum concentrations by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and subsequently cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver and increases the number of hepatic LDL receptors on the cell surface for enhanced uptake and catabolism of LDL.
Fluvastatin, a fully synthetic cholesterol-lowering agent, is a competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, which is responsible for the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a precursor of sterols, including cholesterol. Fluvastatin reduces total-C, LDL-C, Apo B, and triglycerides, and increases HDL-C in patients with hypercholesterolaemia and mixed dyslipidaemia.
Lovastatin, which is an inactive lactone, is hydrolysed after oral administration to the corresponding β-hydroxyacid. This is the major metabolite and an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, an enzyme that catalyses an early and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of cholesterol.
Pitavastatin competitively inhibits HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, and inhibits cholesterol synthesis in the liver.
Pravastatin is a competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy–3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the enzyme catalyzing the early rate limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis, and produces its lipid lowering effect in two ways.
Rosuvastatin is a selective and competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase. Rosuvastatin increases the number of hepatic LDL receptors on the cell-surface, enhancing uptake and catabolism of LDL and it inhibits the hepatic synthesis of VLDL, thereby reducing the total number of VLDL and LDL particles.
Simvastatin has a potent activity in inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy–3-ethylglutaryl-CoA-reductase). Simvastatin has been shown to reduce both normal and elevated LDL-C concentrations.