Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Ciclosporin (also known as ciclosporin A) is a cyclic polypeptide immunomodulator with immunosuppressant properties. It has been shown to prolong survival of allogeneic transplants in animals and significantly improved graft survival in all types of solid organ transplantation in man. Ciclosporin has also been shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect.
Tacrolimus is a highly potent immunosuppressive agent. In particular, tacrolimus inhibits the formation of cytotoxic lymphocytes, which are mainly responsible for graft rejection. Tacrolimus suppresses T-cell activation and T-helper-cell dependent B-cell proliferation, as well as the formation of lymphokines (such as interleukins-2, -3, and γ-interferon) and the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor.
Voclosporin is a calcineurin-inhibitor immunosuppressant that inhibits calcineurin in a dose-dependent manner. The immunosuppressant activity results in inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation, T-cell cytokine production, and expression of T-cell activation surface antigens.