Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Artesunate is a semi-synthetic artemisinin derivative, indicated for the initial treatment of severe malaria in adults and children. The antimalarial mechanism of action of artesunate is generally thought to depend upon activation involving iron-mediated cleavage of the endoperoxide bridge of DHA to generate an unstable organic free radical followed by alkylation, where the free radical binds to malarial proteins leading to destruction of parasite membranes.
Chloroquine binds to and alters the properties of DNA. Chloroquine also binds to ferriprotoporphyrin IX and this leads to lysis of the plasmodial membrane. In acute attacks of malaria, it interrupts erythrocytic schizogony of the parasite.
Hydroxychloroquine is a antimalarial agent with have several pharmacological actions which may be involved in their therapeutic effect in the treatment of rheumatic disease, but its role is not known.
Mefloquine acts on and destroys the asexual intraerythocytic forms of the human malaria parasites: Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax. P. malariae and P. ovale. It is effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria.
Primaquine is an 8-aminoquinoline anti-protozoal agent. Primaquine is indicated for the radical cure (prevention of relapse) of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malaria.
Proguanil is an antimalarial drug and dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor. It acts like the other antifolate antimalarials by interfering with the folic-folinic acid systems and thus exerts its effect mainly at the time the nucleus is dividing. Proguanil is effective against the exoerythrocytic forms of some strains of plasmodium falciparum but it has little or no activity against the exoerythrocytic forms of p. Vivax.
Pyrimethamine is an antiparasitic agent. The antiparasitic action of pyrimethamine is due to its specific activity on folic acid metabolism in the Plasmodium and Toxoplasma parasites.
Quinine is a cinchona alkaloid and a 4-methanolquinoline antimalarial agent which is a rapidly acting blood schizontocide with activity against Plasmodium falciparum, P vivax, P ovale and P malariae. It is active against the gametocytes of P malariae and P vivax, but not against mature gametocytes of P falciparum.
Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline antimalarial drug. It is used for the radical cure (prevention of relapse) of Plasmodium vivax malaria in patients aged 16 years and older who are receiving chloroquine therapy for acute P. vivax infection.