Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Aclidinium bromide is a competitive, selective muscarinic receptor antagonist (also known as an anticholinergic), with a longer residence time at the M3 receptors than the M2 receptors. M3 receptors mediate contraction of airway smooth muscle. Inhaled aclidinium bromide acts locally in the lungs to antagonise M3 receptors of airway smooth muscle and induce bronchodilation.
Beclometasone is a pro-drug with weak glucocorticoid receptor binding affinity. It is extensively hydrolysed via esterase enzymes to the active metabolite beclometasone-17-monopropionate (B-17-MP), which has potent topical anti-inflammatory activity.
Betamethasone is a glucocorticoid which is about eight to ten times as active as prednisolone on a weight-for-weight basis. Betamethasone has anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and vasoconstrictive properties.
Budesonide is a glucocorticosteroid with a high local anti-inflammatory effect. At doses clinically equivalent to systemically acting glucocorticosteroids, budesonide gives significantly less HPA axis suppression and has a lower impact on inflammatory markers.
Ciclesonide exhibits low binding affinity to the glucocorticoid-receptor. Once orally inhaled, ciclesonide is enzymatically converted in the lungs to the principal metabolite (C21-des-methylpropionyl-ciclesonide) which has a pronounced anti-inflammatory activity and is thus considered as the active metabolite.
Sodium cromoglicate (Cromoglicic acid) inhibits the activation of many of the cell types involved in the development and progression of asthma. Thus, sodium cromoglicate inhibits the release of inflammatory mediators including cytokines from mast cells and reduces the chemotactic activity of eosinophils and neutrophils.
Fenspiride has an anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator activity. These properties are most likely due to several concomitant mechanisms of action. It is used as symptomatic treatment in the course of inflammatory diseases of the bronchi and lungs.
Fluticasone has anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictive features. Fluticasone given by inhalation at recommended doses has a potent glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory action within the lungs, resulting in a reduction of both symptoms and exacerbations of asthma, with a lower incidence and severity of adverse effects than those observed when corticosteroids are administered systemically.
Fluticasone furoate is a synthetic trifluorinated corticosteroid that possesses a very high affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor and has a potent anti-inflammatory action.
Glycopyrronium is an inhaled long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist (anticholinergic) for once-daily maintenance bronchodilator treatment of COPD. Glycopyrronium works by blocking the bronchoconstrictor action of acetylcholine on airway smooth muscle cells, thereby dilating the airways.
Ipratropium is a quaternary ammonium compound with anticholinergic (parasympatholytic) properties. Ipratropium appears to inhibit vagally mediated reflexes by antagonising the action of acetylcholine, the transmitter agent released from the vagus nerve. Anticholinergics prevent the increase in intracellular concentration of Ca++, which is caused by interaction of acetylcholine with the muscarinic receptor on bronchial smooth muscle. Ca++ release is mediated by the second messenger system consisting of IP3 (inositol triphosphate) and DAG (diacylglycerol).
Μometasone is a topical glucocorticoid with local anti-inflammatory properties. It is likely that much of the mechanism for the effects of mometasone lies in its ability to inhibit the release of mediators of the inflammatory cascade.
Nedocromil is a non-steroidal agent, which has anti-inflammatory properties when administered topically in the lung. In the treatment of bronchial asthma, nedocromil sodium reduces bronchospasm, cough and bronchial hyperreactivity and improves objective measurements of lung function.
Revefenacin is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, which is often referred to as an anticholinergic. It has similar affinity to the subtypes of muscarinic receptors M1 to M5. In the airways, it exhibits pharmacological effects through inhibition of M3 receptor at the smooth muscle leading to bronchodilation. It is used for the maintenance treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Tiotropium is a long-acting, specific, muscarinic receptor antagonist, in clinical medicine often called an anticholinergic. By binding to the muscarinic receptors in the bronchial smooth musculature, tiotropium inhibits the cholinergic (bronchoconstrictive) effects of acetylcholine, released from parasympathetic nerve endings.
Triamcinolone acetonide is a more potent derivative of triamcinolone and is approximately 8 times more potent than prednisone. Although the precise mechanism of corticosteroid anti-allergic action is unknown, corticosteroids are very effective in the treatment of allergic diseases in man. Also, local injections are thought to have an anti-inflammatory effect.
Umeclidinium bromide is a long acting muscarinic receptor antagonist (also referred to as an anticholinergic). It is a quinuclidine derivative that is a muscarinic receptor antagonist with activity across multiple muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes.