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ATC Group: A01AB Antiinfectives and antiseptics for local oral treatment

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System

Hierarchical position

Level
Code
Title
1
A
Alimentary tract and metabolism
2
A01
Stomatological preparations
3
A01A
Stomatological preparations
4
A01AB
Antiinfectives and antiseptics for local oral treatment

Contents

Code
Title
A01AB02
Hydrogen peroxide
A01AB03
Chlorhexidine
A01AB04
Amphotericin B
A01AB05
Polynoxylin
A01AB06
Domiphen
A01AB07
Oxyquinoline
A01AB08
Neomycin
A01AB09
Miconazole
A01AB10
Natamycin
A01AB11
Various
A01AB12
Hexetidine
A01AB13
Tetracycline
A01AB14
Benzoxonium chloride
A01AB15
Tibezonium iodide
A01AB16
Mepartricin
A01AB17
Metronidazole
A01AB18
Clotrimazole
A01AB19
Sodium perborate
A01AB21
Chlortetracycline
A01AB22
Doxycycline
A01AB23
Minocycline

Active ingredients

Active Ingredient
Description
Amphotericin B

Amphotericin B is a macrocyclic, polyene antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus. The molecule is thought to act by binding to sterols in the fungal cell membrane, with a resulting change in membrane permeability, allowing leakage of a variety of small molecules.

Amylmetacresol

Amylmetacresol is an antibacterial and antiviral agent, and blocks voltage-gated Na channels in a local anesthetic-like manner. It relieves symptoms of sore throat/irritation of the throat. Amylmetacresol is thought to inhibit the inflammatory and pain mediators that are involved in the inflammation of the mouth and throat mucous membranes, as well as the sore throat.

Benzoxonium chloride

Benzoxonium chloride is an antiseptic/disinfectant.

Chlorhexidine

Chlorhexidine is an antimicrobial agent, active against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, yeasts, fungi, opportunistic anaerobes and aerobes. Chlorhexidine is mainly a “membrane-acting” agent that destroys the outer membrane of the bacteria. It is inactive on bacterial spores unless the temperatures are high.

Chlortetracycline

Chlortetracycline is a tetracycline antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces aureofaciens. It has a role as an antiprotozoal drug, a fluorescent probe, a calcium ionophore and an antibacterial drug.

Clotrimazole

Clotrimazole acts against fungi by inhibiting ergosterol synthesis. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis leads to structural and functional impairment of the fungal cytoplasmic membrane. Clotrimazole has a broad antimycotic spectrum of action in vitro and in vivo, which includes dermatophytes, yeasts, moulds, etc.

Doxycycline

Doxycycline is primarily bacteriostatic and is believed to exert its antimicrobial effect by the inhibition of protein synthesis.

Hexetidine

Hexetidine is a broad spectrum antimicrobial. It is active both in vivo and in vitro, against gram positive and negative bacterium, as well as yeasts (Candida albicans) and fungi.

Hydrogen peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is used as a disinfectant and deodorant. It releases oxygen when applied to tissues, the effect lasts only as long as the oxygen is being released and is of short duration. The antimicrobial effect of the liberated oxygen is reduced in the presence of organic matter.

Mepartricin
Methronidazole

Metronidazole is an anti-infectious drug belonging to the pharmacotherapeutic group of nitroimidazole derivatives, which have effect mainly on strict anaerobes. This effect is probably caused by interaction with DNS and different metabolites.

Miconazole

Miconazole possesses an antifungal activity against the common dermatophytes and yeasts as well as an antibacterial activity against certain gram-positive bacilli and cocci. Its activity is based on the inhibition of the ergosterol biosynthesis in fungi and the change in the composition of the lipid components in the membrane, resulting in fungal cell necrosis.

Minocycline

Minocycline is a semi-synthetic derivative of tetracycline. Minocycline inhibits protein synthesis in susceptible bacteria. In common with other tetracyclines it is primarily bacteriostatic and has a similar spectrum of activity to other tetracyclines.

Natamycin

Natamycin is a tetraene polyene antibiotic derived from Streptomyces natalensis. It possesses in vitro activity against a variety of yeast and filamentous fungi, including Candida, Aspergillus, Cephalosporium, Fusarium and Penicillium. The mechanism of action appears to be through binding of the molecule to the sterol moiety of the fungal cell membrane.

Neomycin

Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic and acts by binding to polysomes, inhibiting protein synthesis and generating errors in the transcription of the genetic code.

Oxyquinoline
Sodium perborate

Sodium perborate is chemical compound that undergoes hydrolysis in contact with water, producing hydrogen peroxide and borate. Sodium perborate serves as a stable source of active oxygen in many detergents, laundry detergents, cleaning products, and laundry bleaches. Sodium perborate releases oxygen rapidly at temperatures over 60 °C. To make it active at lower temperatures (40–60 °C), it has to be mixed with a suitable activator, typically tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED). The compound has antiseptic properties and can act as a disinfectant.

Tetracycline

Tetracyclines are taken up into sensitive bacterial cells by an active transport process. Once within the cell they bind reversibly to the 30S subunit of the ribosome, preventing the binding of aminoacyl transfer RNA and inhibiting protein synthesis and hence cell growth.

Monographs

Monograph
Type
Country
ARESTIN Powder for solution for injection
MPI, US: SPL/Old
US
CORSODYL ORIGINAL Mouthwash
MPI, EU: SmPC
UK
DAKTARIN Cream
MPI, EU: SmPC
UK
DAKTARIN Oral gel
MPI, EU: SmPC
UK
GYNO-DAKTARIN Vaginal cream
MPI, EU: SmPC
UK
NIVEMYCIN Tablets
MPI, EU: SmPC
UK
PAROEX Oral rinse
MPI, US: SPL/Old
US