ATC Group: A01AB Antiinfectives and antiseptics for local oral treatment

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System

Hierarchical position in ATC classification

Level
Code
Title
1
Alimentary tract and metabolism
2
Stomatological preparations
3
Stomatological preparations
4
A01AB
Antiinfectives and antiseptics for local oral treatment

ATC group contents

Code
Title
Hydrogen peroxide
Chlorhexidine
Amphotericin B
Polynoxylin
Domiphen
Oxyquinoline
Neomycin
Miconazole
Natamycin
Various
Hexetidine
Tetracycline
Benzoxonium chloride
Tibezonium iodide
Mepartricin
Metronidazole
Clotrimazole
Sodium perborate
Chlortetracycline
Doxycycline
Minocycline

Active ingredients

Active Ingredient
Description

Amphotericin B is a macrocyclic, polyene antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus. The molecule is thought to act by binding to sterols in the fungal cell membrane, with a resulting change in membrane permeability, allowing leakage of a variety of small molecules.

Amylmetacresol is an antibacterial and antiviral agent, and blocks voltage-gated Na channels in a local anesthetic-like manner. It relieves symptoms of sore throat/irritation of the throat. Amylmetacresol is thought to inhibit the inflammatory and pain mediators that are involved in the inflammation of the mouth and throat mucous membranes, as well as the sore throat.

Benzoxonium chloride is an antiseptic/disinfectant.

Chlorhexidine is an antimicrobial agent, active against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, yeasts, fungi, opportunistic anaerobes and aerobes. Chlorhexidine is mainly a “membrane-acting” agent that destroys the outer membrane of the bacteria. It is inactive on bacterial spores unless the temperatures are high.

Chlortetracycline is a tetracycline antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces aureofaciens. It has a role as an antiprotozoal drug, a fluorescent probe, a calcium ionophore and an antibacterial drug.

Clotrimazole acts against fungi by inhibiting ergosterol synthesis. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis leads to structural and functional impairment of the fungal cytoplasmic membrane. Clotrimazole has a broad antimycotic spectrum of action in vitro and in vivo, which includes dermatophytes, yeasts, moulds, etc.

Doxycycline is primarily bacteriostatic and is believed to exert its antimicrobial effect by the inhibition of protein synthesis.

Hexetidine is a broad spectrum antimicrobial. It is active both in vivo and in vitro, against gram positive and negative bacterium, as well as yeasts (Candida albicans) and fungi.

Hydrogen peroxide is used as a disinfectant and deodorant. It releases oxygen when applied to tissues, the effect lasts only as long as the oxygen is being released and is of short duration. The antimicrobial effect of the liberated oxygen is reduced in the presence of organic matter.

Metronidazole is an anti-infectious drug belonging to the pharmacotherapeutic group of nitroimidazole derivatives, which have effect mainly on strict anaerobes. This effect is probably caused by interaction with DNS and different metabolites.

Miconazole possesses an antifungal activity against the common dermatophytes and yeasts as well as an antibacterial activity against certain gram-positive bacilli and cocci. Its activity is based on the inhibition of the ergosterol biosynthesis in fungi and the change in the composition of the lipid components in the membrane, resulting in fungal cell necrosis.

Minocycline is a semi-synthetic derivative of tetracycline. Minocycline inhibits protein synthesis in susceptible bacteria. In common with other tetracyclines it is primarily bacteriostatic and has a similar spectrum of activity to other tetracyclines.

Natamycin is a tetraene polyene antibiotic derived from Streptomyces natalensis. It possesses in vitro activity against a variety of yeast and filamentous fungi, including Candida, Aspergillus, Cephalosporium, Fusarium and Penicillium. The mechanism of action appears to be through binding of the molecule to the sterol moiety of the fungal cell membrane.

Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic and acts by binding to polysomes, inhibiting protein synthesis and generating errors in the transcription of the genetic code.

Sodium perborate is chemical compound that undergoes hydrolysis in contact with water, producing hydrogen peroxide and borate. Sodium perborate serves as a stable source of active oxygen in many detergents, laundry detergents, cleaning products, and laundry bleaches. Sodium perborate releases oxygen rapidly at temperatures over 60 °C. To make it active at lower temperatures (40–60 °C), it has to be mixed with a suitable activator, typically tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED). The compound has antiseptic properties and can act as a disinfectant.

Tetracyclines are taken up into sensitive bacterial cells by an active transport process. Once within the cell they bind reversibly to the 30S subunit of the ribosome, preventing the binding of aminoacyl transfer RNA and inhibiting protein synthesis and hence cell growth.

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