Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Acetylsalicylic acid combines significant advantages such as strong anti-pyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory action, that is the measure of comparison with all the newer NSAIDs.
Adrenalone is a keton form of the natural substrate epinephrine. an adrenergic agonist that mainly acts on alpha-1 adrenergic receptors and has little affinity for beta receptors. Adrenalone inhibits the norepinephrine synthesis and dopamine beta oxidase. It is known to have very weak sympathomimetic activity when compared to adrenaline. Adrenalone has the high radioprotective effect. It is a topical nasal decongestant. Adrenalone has hemostatic, sympathomimetic and vasoconstrictor therapeutic functions.
Amphotericin B is a macrocyclic, polyene antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus. The molecule is thought to act by binding to sterols in the fungal cell membrane, with a resulting change in membrane permeability, allowing leakage of a variety of small molecules.
Amylmetacresol is an antibacterial and antiviral agent, and blocks voltage-gated Na channels in a local anesthetic-like manner. It relieves symptoms of sore throat/irritation of the throat. Amylmetacresol is thought to inhibit the inflammatory and pain mediators that are involved in the inflammation of the mouth and throat mucous membranes, as well as the sore throat.
Benzoxonium chloride is an antiseptic/disinfectant.
Benzydamine exerts an anti-inflammatory and analgesic action by stabilising the cellular membrane and inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
Chlorhexidine is an antimicrobial agent, active against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, yeasts, fungi, opportunistic anaerobes and aerobes. Chlorhexidine is mainly a “membrane-acting” agent that destroys the outer membrane of the bacteria. It is inactive on bacterial spores unless the temperatures are high.
Chlortetracycline is a tetracycline antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces aureofaciens. It has a role as an antiprotozoal drug, a fluorescent probe, a calcium ionophore and an antibacterial drug.
Clotrimazole acts against fungi by inhibiting ergosterol synthesis. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis leads to structural and functional impairment of the fungal cytoplasmic membrane. Clotrimazole has a broad antimycotic spectrum of action in vitro and in vivo, which includes dermatophytes, yeasts, moulds, etc.
Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid; it combines high anti-inflammatory effects with low mineralocorticoid activity. It has an approximately 7 times greater anti-inflammatory potency than prednisolone, another commonly prescribed corticosteroid. At high doses it reduces the immune response.
Doxycycline is primarily bacteriostatic and is believed to exert its antimicrobial effect by the inhibition of protein synthesis.
Epinephrine is a direct acting sympathomimetic agent, which exerts effects on both α and β adrenoceptors. It has more pronounced effects on β than on α adrenoceptors, although α effects prevail at high doses. The effects of adrenaline include increased rate and force of cardiac contraction, cutaneous vasoconstriction and broncho-dilatation.
Hexetidine is a broad spectrum antimicrobial. It is active both in vivo and in vitro, against gram positive and negative bacterium, as well as yeasts (Candida albicans) and fungi.
Hydrocortisone is the main glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex. Hydrocortisone is an anti-inflammatory steroid. Its anti-inflammatory action is due to reduction in the vascular component of the inflammatory response and reduction in the formation of inflammatory fluid and cellular exudates.
Hydrogen peroxide is used as a disinfectant and deodorant. It releases oxygen when applied to tissues, the effect lasts only as long as the oxygen is being released and is of short duration. The antimicrobial effect of the liberated oxygen is reduced in the presence of organic matter.
Metronidazole is an anti-infectious drug belonging to the pharmacotherapeutic group of nitroimidazole derivatives, which have effect mainly on strict anaerobes. This effect is probably caused by interaction with DNS and different metabolites.
Miconazole possesses an antifungal activity against the common dermatophytes and yeasts as well as an antibacterial activity against certain gram-positive bacilli and cocci. Its activity is based on the inhibition of the ergosterol biosynthesis in fungi and the change in the composition of the lipid components in the membrane, resulting in fungal cell necrosis.
Minocycline is a semi-synthetic derivative of tetracycline. Minocycline inhibits protein synthesis in susceptible bacteria. In common with other tetracyclines it is primarily bacteriostatic and has a similar spectrum of activity to other tetracyclines.
Natamycin is a tetraene polyene antibiotic derived from Streptomyces natalensis. It possesses in vitro activity against a variety of yeast and filamentous fungi, including Candida, Aspergillus, Cephalosporium, Fusarium and Penicillium. The mechanism of action appears to be through binding of the molecule to the sterol moiety of the fungal cell membrane.
Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic and acts by binding to polysomes, inhibiting protein synthesis and generating errors in the transcription of the genetic code.
Sodium fluoride is indicated for the prevention of dental caries in adolescents and adults, particularly amongst patients at risk from multiple caries (coronal and/or root caries). The primary mode of the caries preventative action of fluoride is post-eruptive, i.e topical action. Systemic fluoride supplements are believed also to act mainly topically (i.e during ingestion, via saliva).
Sodium perborate is chemical compound that undergoes hydrolysis in contact with water, producing hydrogen peroxide and borate. Sodium perborate serves as a stable source of active oxygen in many detergents, laundry detergents, cleaning products, and laundry bleaches. Sodium perborate releases oxygen rapidly at temperatures over 60 °C. To make it active at lower temperatures (40–60 °C), it has to be mixed with a suitable activator, typically tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED). The compound has antiseptic properties and can act as a disinfectant.
Tetracyclines are taken up into sensitive bacterial cells by an active transport process. Once within the cell they bind reversibly to the 30S subunit of the ribosome, preventing the binding of aminoacyl transfer RNA and inhibiting protein synthesis and hence cell growth.
Triamcinolone acetonide is a more potent derivative of triamcinolone and is approximately 8 times more potent than prednisone. Although the precise mechanism of corticosteroid anti-allergic action is unknown, corticosteroids are very effective in the treatment of allergic diseases in man. Also, local injections are thought to have an anti-inflammatory effect.