ATC Group: D07A Corticosteroids, plain
Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
Alclometasone dipropionate is a non-fluorinated, topically active synthetic corticosteroid. Pharmacological studies in man and animals have demonstrated that alclometasone dipropionate suppresses local inflammation at doses producing minimal systemic effects.
Beclometasone is a pro-drug with weak glucocorticoid receptor binding affinity. It is extensively hydrolysed via esterase enzymes to the active metabolite beclometasone-17-monopropionate (B-17-MP), which has potent topical anti-inflammatory activity.
Betamethasone is a glucocorticoid which is about eight to ten times as active as prednisolone on a weight-for-weight basis. Betamethasone has anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and vasoconstrictive properties.
Budesonide is a glucocorticosteroid with a high local anti-inflammatory effect. At doses clinically equivalent to systemically acting glucocorticosteroids, budesonide gives significantly less HPA axis suppression and has a lower impact on inflammatory markers.
Clobetasol propionate, like other topical corticosteroids, has anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and vasoconstrictive properties. Corticosteroids are thought to act by the induction of phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, collectively called lipocortins. It is postulated that these proteins control the biosynthesis of potent mediators of inflammation such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes by inhibiting the release of their common precursor arachidonic acid.
Clobetasone is a topical corticosteroids. Clobetasone has little effect on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function. Clobetasone is less potent than other available corticosteroid preparations and has been shown not to suppress the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients treated for psoriasis or eczema.
Clocortolone is a medium potency corticosteroid that is often used as a topical cream for the relief of inflammatory oand pruritic (itching) arising from steroid-responsive dermatoses of the scalp.
Desonide is a low-potency topical corticosteroid. Corticosteroids play a role in cellular signaling, immune function, inflammation, and protein regulation; however, the precise mechanism of action in the treatment of atopic dermatitis is unknown.
Desoximetasone is a synthetic corticosteroid. Topical corticosteroids share anti-inflammatory, antipruritic and vasoconstrictive actions. Desoximetasone is used for the relief of the inflammatory and pruritic manifestations of corticosteroid-responsive dermatoses.
Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid; it combines high anti-inflammatory effects with low mineralocorticoid activity. It has an approximately 7 times greater anti-inflammatory potency than prednisolone, another commonly prescribed corticosteroid. At high doses it reduces the immune response.
Diflucortolone is a topically acting fluoridated corticosteroid which suppresses inflammation in inflammatory and allergic skin conditions and alleviates the subjective complaints such as itching, burning and pain.
Difluprednate is a topical corticosteroid indicated for the treatment of inflammation and pain associated with ocular surgery. Corticosteroids inhibit the inflammatory response to a variety of inciting agents and may delay or slow healing. There is no generally accepted explanation for the mechanism of action of ocular corticosteroids.
Fludroxycortide is a potent corticosteroid intended for topical use. It is primarily effective because of its anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and vasoconstrictive actions. The mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of topical corticosteroids is not completely understood.
Fluocinolone acetonide is a synthetic fluorinated corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and vasoconstrictive properties.
Fluocinonide is a synthetic anti-inflammatory corticosteroid. Its mechanisms of action are related to vasoconstriction and suppression of membrane permeability, mitotic activity, the immune response and release of inflammatory mediators.
Fluocortolone pivalate inhibits inflammatory and allergic skin reactions, and alleviates subjective complaints such as pruritus, smarting, and pain. The substance reduces dilatation of the capillaries, oedema of the interstitial cells and infiltration of the tissues. Capillary multiplication is inhibited.
Fluorometholone is a synthetic corticosteroid (glucocorticoid), a derivative of desoxyprednisolone. It is a member of the group of universally known steroids used for the treatment of eye inflammation. Glucocorticosteroids bind to cytoplasmic receptors and control the synthesis of infection mediators thus damping inflammatory reactions (swelling, fibrin deposition, capillary dilatation, phagocyte migration) and also capillary proliferation, collagen deposition and scarring.
Fluprednidene acetate belongs to a class of potent glucocorticoids. Several studies in animals have proven anti-allergic, anti-pruritic, anti-inflammatory properties of fluprednidene.
Fluticasone has anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictive features. Fluticasone given by inhalation at recommended doses has a potent glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory action within the lungs, resulting in a reduction of both symptoms and exacerbations of asthma, with a lower incidence and severity of adverse effects than those observed when corticosteroids are administered systemically.
Halcinonide is a topical corticosteroid. Topical corticosteroids share anti-inflammatory, antipruritic and vasoconstrictive actions. The mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity is unclear. There is some evidence to suggest that a recognizable correlation exists between vasoconstrictor potency and therapeutic efficacy in man.
Hydrocortisone is the main glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex. Hydrocortisone is an anti-inflammatory steroid. Its anti-inflammatory action is due to reduction in the vascular component of the inflammatory response and reduction in the formation of inflammatory fluid and cellular exudates.
Methylprednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid and a methyl derivative of prednisolone. Methylprednisolone is a potent anti-inflammatory agent with the capacity to profoundly inhibit the immune system.
Μometasone is a topical glucocorticoid with local anti-inflammatory properties. It is likely that much of the mechanism for the effects of mometasone lies in its ability to inhibit the release of mediators of the inflammatory cascade.
Prednisolone is a glucocorticoid which has anti-inflammatory activity. Naturally occurring glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone and cortisone), which also have salt-retaining properties, are used as replacement therapy in adrenocortical deficiency states. Their synthetic analogs are primarily used for their potent anti-inflammatory effects in disorders of many organ systems.
Triamcinolone acetonide is a more potent derivative of triamcinolone and is approximately 8 times more potent than prednisone. Although the precise mechanism of corticosteroid anti-allergic action is unknown, corticosteroids are very effective in the treatment of allergic diseases in man. Also, local injections are thought to have an anti-inflammatory effect.